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جلد 29 شماره 1 صفحات 1-17 برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
امروز و فردای پزشکی شخصی شده
محمدرضا نوری دلویی* 1، نرگس ظفری2
1- دکتری ژنتیک مولکولی پزشکی، گروه ژنتیک پزشکی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران ، nooridaloii@sina.tums.ac.ir
2- دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد ژنتیک پزشکی، گروه ژنتیک پزشکی، دانشکده پزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
چکیده:   (317 مشاهده)
اکتشافات ژنتیک اخیر و تحولات مربوط به آن در تکنیک­های ژنوم منجر به تجاری سازی سیستم های جدید تشخیصی برای مطالعه بیماری یا سنجش نتایج درمانی در بیماران شده است. این رشته "پزشکی شخصی" نامیده می­شود و از ساختار ژنتیکی بیمار برای آزمون روش­های تشخیص، درمان یا پیشگیری بیماری خاص آن استفاده می­کند. طبق باور پزشکی شخصی، از آنجا که افراد دارای خصوصیات منحصر به فرد مولکولی، فیزیولوژیکی، محیطی و رفتاری هستند، ممکن است نیاز به فراهم آوردن مداخلات درمانی برای افراد مبتلا مطابق با این ویژگی های منحصر به فرد آنها باشد. تست­های تشخیص شخصی برای تعیین تفاوت­های بین بیماران در سطوح بیان ژن یا پروتئین مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرند، که به عنوان شاخصی برای درمان دارویی و یا پیش آگهی بیماری عمل می­کنند. به علاوه، متخصصان پزشکی بهتر می­توانند به سؤالاتی مانند «چه کسی باید با چه دارویی درمان شود؟» و «چگونه درمان باید تجویز شود» پاسخ دهند. آزمایشات ژنتیک بالینی بیش از 30 سال پیش با در دسترس بودن تشخیص جهش آغاز شد. از آن زمان به بعد، این رشته به طور چشمگیری به توالی یابی ژنوم و تجزیه و تحلیل ژنوم با استفاده از میکرو آرایه و توالی نسل آینده تبدیل شده است. شناسایی واریانت­های توالی DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) مرتبط با بیماری­های شایع، امکان دسترسی به آزمایشات برای ارزیابی خطر بیماری­های شخصی را فراهم می­کند و فرصت­های تجاری برای شرکت­های آزمایش کننده ژنتیک عرضه مستقیم به مشتری ایجاد می­کند که این واریانت­ها را مورد آزمایش قرار می­دهد. این خطرات ژنتیکی، مولفه های کلیدی پزشکی شخصی است که هدف آن استفاده از اطلاعات ژنتیکی شخصی و دیگر اطلاعات مربوط به ارزیابی بالینی بیمار است تا دقیق­تر به راهنمایی مدیریت پزشکی بپردازد. آزمایش DNA عرضه مستقیم به مشتری (DTC)، با ارائه طیف وسیعی از اطلاعات ژنتیکی شخصی به طور مستقیم به مشتریان، رشد کرده است. این شرکت­ها، مانند 23andme که به خوبی شناخته شده است، عموما تجزیه و تحلیل پلی مورفیسم­های تک نوکلئوتید (SNP) را با استفاده از DNA استخراج شده از نمونه بزاق انجام می­دهند. داده های ژنتیکی به دست آمده با تفسیرهای متفاوت، به طور مستقیم به مشتری ارائه می­شود.
واژه‌های کلیدی: پزشکی شخصی، فارماکوژنومیک، درمان هدفمند
متن کامل [PDF 380 kb]   (179 دریافت)    
نيمه آزمايشي : مروري | موضوع مقاله: ژنتيك
دریافت: ۱۳۹۷/۹/۲۴ | پذیرش: ۱۳۹۷/۱۱/۲۹ | انتشار: ۱۳۹۷/۱۲/۱۹
فهرست منابع
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60. Goetz LH, Schork NJ. Personalized medicine: motivation, challenges, and progress. Fertil Steril 2018;109:952-63. [DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.05.006] [PMID]
61. Wong SHY. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, Handbook of Drug Monitoring Methods 2008:211-23. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-59745-031-7_11] [PMCID]
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66. Hudson T. Genome variation and personalized cancer medicine. J Intern Med 2013;274:440-50. [DOI:10.1111/joim.12097] [PMID]
67. Le Tourneau C. Molecularly targeted therapy based on tumour molecular profiling versus conventional therapy for advanced cancer (SHIVA): a multicentre, open-label, proof-of-concept, randomised, controlled phase 2 trial. The lancet oncol 2015;16:1324-34. [DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00188-6]
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70. Vogenberg FR, Barash CI, Pursel M. Personalized medicine: part 1: evolution and development into theranostics. P T 2010;35:560-76.
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72. Lu YF, Goldstein DB, Angrist M, Cavalleri G. Personalized medicine and human genetic diversity. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4:a008581. [DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a008581] [PMID] [PMCID]
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75. Zanger UM, Raimundo S, Eichelbaum M. Cytochrome P450 2D6: overview and update on pharmacology, genetics, biochemistry. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 2004;369:23-37. [DOI:10.1007/s00210-003-0832-2] [PMID]
76. Ashley-Koch A, Yang Q, Olney RS. Sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) allele and sickle cell disease: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:839-45. [DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010288] [PMID]
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78. Slatkin MA. Population-genetic test of founder effects and implications for Ashkenazi Jewish diseases. Am J Hum Genet 2004;75:282-93. [DOI:10.1086/423146] [PMID] [PMCID]
79. Ostrer H. Skorecki K. The population genetics of the Jewish people. Hum Genet 2013;132:119-27. [DOI:10.1007/s00439-012-1235-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
80. Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson AJ, Simon JS, Shianna KV, Urban TJ, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature 2009;461:399-401. [DOI:10.1038/nature08309] [PMID]
81. Raby BA. Personalized medicine. UpToDate:2017.
82. Noori-Daloii MR, Eshaghkhani Y. lncRNAs: significance and function mechanisms. Med Sci J Islamic Azad Univ Tehran Med Branch 2015:79-94.
83. Noori-Daloii MR, Fazilaty H, Tabrizi M. Cancer metastasis, genetic and microenvironmental factors of distant tissue: a review article. Tehran Univ Med Sci 2013:70.
84. Ng PC, Murray SS, Levy S, Venter JC. An agenda for personalized medicine. Nature 2009;461:724-6. [DOI:10.1038/461724a] [PMID]
85. Kalf RR, Mihaescu R, Kundu S, de Knijff P, Green RC, Janssens AC.Variations in predicted risks in personal genome testing for common complex diseases. Genet Med 2014;16:85-91. [DOI:10.1038/gim.2013.80] [PMID] [PMCID]
86. Imai K, Kricka LJ, Fortina P. Concordance study of 3 direct-to-consumer genetic-testing services. Clin Chem 2011;57:518-21. [DOI:10.1373/clinchem.2010.158220] [PMID]
87. Noori-Daloii MR, Nikpour B. Gene therapy in cancer and its development. Journal of Razi 1999;10:9-28. [In Persian]
88. Noori-Daloii MR, Tabarestani S. Molecular Genetics and gene therapy in breast cancer. The Journal of Faculty of Medicine. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2010;17:74-87. [In Persian]
89. Chua EW, Kennedy MA. Current state and future prospects of direct-to-consumer pharmacogenetics. Front Pharmacol 2012;3:152. [DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00152] [PMID] [PMCID]
90. Middleton A, Mendes A, Benjamin CM, Howard HC. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: where and how does genetic counseling fit? Per Med 2017;14:249-57. [DOI:10.2217/pme-2017-0001] [PMID]
91. Adams JU. Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Nature Educat 2008;1:194.
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94. Analysis P. More Than 20 Percent of FDA's 2014 Novel New Drug Approvals are Personalized Medicines. 2015.
95. Lerman C, Croyle RT, Tercyak KP, Hamann H. Genetic testing: psychological aspects and implications. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002;70:784-97. [DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.784] [PMID]
96. Ward RL, Hicks S, Hawkins NJ. Population-based molecular screening for Lynch syndrome: implications for personalized medicine. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:2554-62. [DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.46.8454] [PMID]
97. Morrison P, Harding‐Lester S, Bradley A. Uptake of Huntington disease predictive testing in a complete population. Clin Genet 2011;80:281-6. [DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010.01538.x] [PMID]
98. Roberts JS, Barber M, Brown TM, Cupples LA, Farrer LA, LaRusse SA, et al. Who seeks genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer's disease? Findings from a multisite, randomized clinical trial. Genet Med 2004;6:197-203. [DOI:10.1097/01.GIM.0000132688.55591.77] [PMID]
99. Foster MW, Mulvihill JJ, Sharp RR. Evaluating the utility of personal genomic information. Genet Med 2009;11:570-4. [DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181a2743e] [PMID]
100. Sanderson SC, Wardle J. Associations between anticipated reactions to genetic test results and interest in genetic testing: will self-selection reduce the potential for harm? Genet Test 2008;12:59-66. [DOI:10.1089/gte.2007.0047] [PMID]
101. Bloss CS, Schork NJ, Topol EJ. Effect of direct-to-consumer genomewide profiling to assess disease risk. N Engl J Med 2011;364:524-34. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1011893] [PMID] [PMCID]
102. Haga SB, Tindall G, O'Daniel JM. Public perspectives about pharmacogenetic testing and managing ancillary findings. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2012;16:193-7. [DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2011.0118] [PMID] [PMCID]
103. Sanderson SC, Humphries SE, Hubbart C, Hughes E, Jarvis MJ, Wardle J. Psychological and behavioural impact of genetic testing smokers for lung cancer risk: a phase II exploratory trial. J Health Psychol 2008;13:481-94. [DOI:10.1177/1359105308088519] [PMID]
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Noori-Daloii M R, Zafari N. The personalized medicine: today and tomorrow . MEDICAL SCIENCES. 2019; 29 (1) :1-17
URL: http://tmuj.iautmu.ac.ir/article-1-1526-fa.html

نوری دلویی محمدرضا، ظفری نرگس. امروز و فردای پزشکی شخصی شده. فصلنامه علوم پزشکی . 1397; 29 (1) :1-17

URL: http://tmuj.iautmu.ac.ir/article-1-1526-fa.html



دوره 29، شماره 1 - ( بهار98 1397 ) برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
فصلنامه علوم پزشکی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد پزشکی تهران Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad Univesity - Tehran Medical Branch
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