[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 32, Issue 2 (summer 2022) ::
MEDICAL SCIENCES 2022, 32(2): 175-184 Back to browse issues page
Preparing and validating character strength training package and its effectiveness on assertiveness skills of adolescents
Zahra Ranjbar1 , Malek Mirhashemi 2, Abotaleb Seadatishamir3 , Rozita Fakhimi Farhadi4
1- PhD Candidate, Department of Psychology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
2- PhD, Department of Psychology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran , mirhashemi@riau.ac.ir
3- PhD, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4- PhD, Department of Psychology, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran
Abstract:   (495 Views)
Background: The present study was to prepare and validate character strength training package and effectiveness on assertiveness skills of adolescents.
Materials and methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design with a control group. First, the training package was prepared and validated. Once the goals were identified, appropriate content was prepared for each strength. Finally, after applying the opinion of experts, a training package was developed. Content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR) were high for all objectives in the training protocol. Character Strength training package in the form of 12 sessions compiled 70 minutes. The statistical population included female high school students who were studying in schools in Tehran in the academic year 2020-2021. Students were selected by available sampling method and answered the assertiveness questionnaire. Among them, 30 students whose expression was a deviation below average were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The Gambrill and Ritchie (1975) Expression Questionnaire was used to assess assertiveness.
Results: The results of univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the mean post-test scores in the experimental group were higher than the control group.
Conclusion: Based our findings, it can be concluded that the prepared character strength training package had an effective role in increasing adolescents' assertiveness
Keywords: Validation, Training package, Character strength, Assertiveness, Adolescents
Full-Text [PDF 324 kb]   (169 Downloads)    
Semi-pilot: Quazi-Experimental | Subject: psychology
Received: 2021/06/16 | Accepted: 2022/01/5 | Published: 2022/07/1
1. Seligman ME. Flourish, eds. A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2012.
2. Niemiec RM, ed. Character strengths interventions: A field guide for practitioners. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe; 2018. [DOI:10.1027/00492-000]
3. Park N, Peterson C. Character strengths: Research and practice. J Coll Character 2009; 10: 1-10. [DOI:10.2202/1940-1639.1042]
4. Peterson C, Seligman MEP, eds. Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2004.
5. Shryack J, Steger M, Krueger R, Kallie C. The structure of virtue. Pers Individ Differ 2010; 48: 714-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.007]
6. Wagner L, Ruch W. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement. Front. Psychol 2015; 6: 610-621. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00610]
7. Lavy S, Littman-Ovadia H. My better half: Strengths endorsement and deployment in married couples. Fam Issues 2016; 37: 1730-45. [DOI:10.1177/0192513X14550365]
8. Berthold A, Ruch W. Satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious and religious people: It's practicing one's religion that makes the difference. Front. Psychol 2014; 5. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00876]
9. Weber M, Ruch W. The role of a good character in 12-year-old school children: Do character strengths matter in the classroom? Child Indic Res 2012; 5: 317-34. [DOI:10.1007/s12187-011-9128-0]
10. Rashid T, Anjum A, Lennox C, Quinlan D, Niemiec RM, Mayerson D, et al. Assessment of character strengths in children and adolescents. In: Proctor C, Linley PA, eds. Research, applications, and interventions for children and adolescents: A positive psychology perspective. Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science + Business Media; 2013. P.81-115. [DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-6398-2_6]
11. Shoshani A, Slone M. Middle school transition from the strengths perspective: Young dolescents' character strengths, subjective wellbeing, and school adjustment. Happiness Studies 2012; 14: 1163-1181. [DOI:10.1007/s10902-012-9374-y]
12. Bekker MHJ, Croon MA, Belkom, EGA. van, Vermee JBG. Predicting individual differences in autonomy-connectedness: The role of body awareness, alexithymia, and assertiveness. J Clin Psychol 2008; 64: 747-765. [DOI:10.1002/jclp.20486]
13. Fallahzadeh S, Panah MSE, Koochehbiuki N, Arabi A, Sahami MA. The Effectiveness of Assertiveness Training on Social Anxiety of Health Volunteers of Yazd. Psychology 2015; 6: 782. [DOI:10.4236/psych.2015.66077]
14. Freidlin P, Littman-Ovadia H, Niemiec RM. Positive psychopathology: Social anxiety via character strengths underuse and overuse. Pers Individ Differ 2017; 108, 50-54. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2016.12.003]
15. Cieciuch J, Włodzimierz S. Toward a model of personality competencies underlying social and emotional skills: Insight from the circumplex of personality metatraits. Front Psychol 2021; 12: 711323. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.711323]
16. Cenberci S. The investigation of the creative thinking tendency of prospective mathematics teachers in terms of different variables. Educ Train Educ Train 2018; 6: 78-85. [DOI:10.11114/jets.v6i9.3434]
17. Franklin H, Harrington I. A review into effective classroom management and strategies for student engagement: Teacher and student roles in today's classrooms. Educ Train 2019; 7:1. [DOI:10.11114/jets.v7i12.4491]
18. Littman-Ovadia H, Dubreuil P, Christina Meyers M, Freidlin P. Editorial: VIA character strengths: Theory, research and practice. Front Psychol 2021; 12. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.653941]
19. Hughes JN, Cao Q. Trajectories of teacher-student warmth and conflict at the transition to middle school: Effects on academic engagement and achievement. J Sch Psychol 2018; 67: 148-162. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsp.2017.10.003]
20. Pedler M, Yeigh T, Hudson S. The teachers' role in student engagement: A review. Aust J Teach Educ. 2020; 45: 48-62. doi: 10.14221/ajte.2020v45n3.4 [DOI:10.14221/ajte.2020v45n3.4]
21. Shoshani A, Shwartz L. From character strengths to children's well-being: development and validation of the character strengths inventory for elementary school children. Front Psychol 2016; 2: 74-88.
22. Linkins M, Niemiec RM, Gillham J, Mayerson D. Through the lens of strength: A framework for educating the heart. J Pos Psychol 2014. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2014.888581]
23. Leventhal K S, DeMaria L M, Gillham J E, Andrew G, Peabody J, Leventhal S M. A psychosocial resilience curriculum provides the "missing piece" to boost adolescent physical health: A randomized controlled trial of Girls First in India. Soc Sci Med 2016; 161, 37-46. [DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.05.004]
24. Hone LC, Jarden A, Schofield GM. An evaluation of positive psychology intervention effectiveness trials using the re-aim framework: A practice-friendly review. Positive Psychol 2015; 10: 303-322. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2014.965267]
25. Ruch W, Niemiec R M, McGrath RE, Gander F, Proyer RT. Character strengths-based interventions: Open Questions and ideas for future research. he Journal of Positive Psychology 2020; 30: 57-64. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2020.1789700]
26. Shankland R, Rosset E. Review of brief school-based positive psychological interventions: A taster for teachers and educators. Educ Psychol Rev 2017; 29: 363-392. [DOI:10.1007/s10648-016-9357-3]
27. Madden W, Green S, Grant AM. A pilot study evaluating strengths-based coaching for primary school students: Enhancing engagement and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review 2011; 6: 71-83.
28. Khosrojerdi Z, Heidari M, Ghanbari S, Pakdaman S. Developing a mastery goal model based on character strengths in adolescents. J Res Pos Psychol 2020; 5. [In Persian]
29. Hassaniraad M, Khodayarifard M, Hejazi E. Effectiveness of culture-based character strengths training on reinforcing character strengths and promoting students' mental well-being. J Psychol Sci 2021; 19: 1533-45. [In Persian]
30. Ghaderi F, Kajbaf M, Shokrollahi M. The structural relationship of personality virtues, authentic personality and personal growth initiative with wisdom in students. J Res Psychol Health 2018; 11:1-15 [In Persian].
31. Sarmad Z, Bazargan A, Hejazi E, eds. Method of research in behavioral sciences. Tehran: Agah; 2001. [In Persian]
32. Cooperride DL, Whitney D. A positive revolution in change: Appreciative inquiry. In: Cooperrider DL, Sorenson P, Yeager T, Whitney D, eds. Appreciative Inquiry: Foundations in Positive Organization Development. Champaign, IL: Stipes; 2005. P.9-33.
33. Palme, S. PRACTICE: A model suitable for coaching, counselling, psychotherapy and stress management. Coach Psychol 2007; 3: 72-77.
34. Gambrill E, Richey C. An assertion inventory for use in assessment and research. Behav Ther 1975; 6: 550-561. [DOI:10.1016/S0005-7894(75)80013-X]
35. Beyrami, Mansour. The effect of courage training on students' general health. Bi-Quarterly J Psychol Res 2011; 4: 99.
36. Bahrami, F. Comparison of the effectiveness of teaching assertiveness methods to daring students High school girl with individual and group methods (Master thesis). Tehran: Allameh Tabatabai University; 1996.
37. Ghaffarianzadeh A. The effect of courageous group counseling training on academic achievement and social skills of female middle and high school students (Master Thesis in General Psychology). Tehran: University of Tehran; 2000.
38. Tang X, Li Y, Duan W, Mu W, Cheng X. Character strengths lead to satisfactory educational outcomes through strength use: A longitudinal analysis. Front Psychol 2019; 10: 1-9. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01829]
39. Duan W. The benefits of personal strengths in mental health of stressed students: A longitudinal investigation. Qual Life Res 2016; 25: 2879- 288. [DOI:10.1007/s11136-016-1320-8]
40. Gillham J, Adams-Deutsch Z, Werner J, Reivich K, Coulter-Heindl V, Linkins M, et al. Character strengths predict subjective wellbeing during adolescence. J Pos Psychol 2011; 6: 31-44. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2010.536773]
41. Proctor C, Maltby J, Linley PA. Strengths use as a predictor of wellbeing and health-related quality of life. Happiness Studies 2011; 12: 153-169. [DOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9181-2]
42. Peterson C, Park N, Seligman ME. Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Happiness Studies 2006; 6: 25-41. [DOI:10.1007/s10902-004-1278-z]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ranjbar Z, Mirhashemi M, Seadatishamir A, Fakhimi Farhadi R. Preparing and validating character strength training package and its effectiveness on assertiveness skills of adolescents. MEDICAL SCIENCES 2022; 32 (2) :175-184
URL: http://tmuj.iautmu.ac.ir/article-1-1934-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 32, Issue 2 (summer 2022) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه علوم پزشکی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد پزشکی تهران Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad Univesity - Tehran Medical Branch
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4509